Untitled Document
Contact Us    |   Register
SITE SEARCH
HOME
ONLINE COMMUNITY
MEMBERSHIP
MEETINGS & EVENTS
PUBLICATIONS/RESOURCES
CAREERS
GOVERNANCE
SECTIONS
AWARDS & FUNDING
EDUCATION & RESEARCH
PUBLIC AFFAIRS
EDUCATION FOUNDATION
ABOUT US


seo services

garcinia cambogia extract

cash loans

Chapter 21

Responses to
Plant Pathogens

 

Plants are resistant to most plant pathogens. Every plant cell can defend itself from attacking pathogenic microorganisms and invertebrates. Some defenses, such as antimicrobial secondary metabolites, are constitutive, being located in specific cellular compartments and ready to be released on cell damage. Other defense responses, such as those induced by pathogen invasion, require detection of the pathogen by the plant. Defense activation is correlated with rapid activation of defense-related genes and often culminates in the HR, localized cell death, to impair pathogen spread. Plant resistance to pathogens can be mediated by dominant resistance (R) genes in plants that are complementary to avirulence (Avr) genes in pathogens. Avr proteins exhibit extensive sequence diversity, and their function in the pathogen is poorly understood. In contrast, plant R proteins are strikingly similar in structure, sharing such motifs as LRRs, a central NBS, and a serine/ threonine protein kinase domain, among others. R proteins both detect pathogens and initiate signal transduction to activate defense mechanisms. In addition, R loci/genes can evolve new R gene specificities to keep pace with the evolution of virulence in pathogen populations. Plant defense reactions involve complex biochemical pathways and multiple signal molecules, including ROS, NO, SA, JA, and ethylene, to provoke the induction of antifungal proteins, secondary metabolites, and cell wall fortification reactions—both at the infection site and systemically throughout the attacked plant. Specialist defenses against plant viruses include PTGS; those against insects involve PI proteins. Many aspects of induced plant defense appear to be conserved in other eukaryotes, perhaps indicating the existence of an ancient defense strategy against microbial attack. The genetic engineering of plants has started to achieve broad-spectrum and durable pest and pathogen control in crops. Still needed are a better understanding of the factors/processes involved and better ways to manipulate resistance mechanisms so as to reduce crop losses.


© Copyright American Society of Plant Biologists 2013 (All Rights Reserved)


Debugging Information
ColdFusion Server Enterprise 9,0,1,274733
Template /publications/biotext/sumrys/ch21.cfm
Time Stamp 08-Feb-16 11:44 AM
Locale English (US)
User Agent CCBot/2.0 (http://commoncrawl.org/faq/)
Remote IP 54.146.194.42
Host Name 54.146.194.42


Execution Time

Total Time Avg Time Count Template
231 ms 231 ms 1 top level C:\home\dev.aspb.org\www.aspb.org\publications\biotext\sumrys\ch21.cfm
227 ms 227 ms 1 C:/home/dev.aspb.org/www.aspb.org/includes/header.cfm
104 ms 104 ms 1 C:/home/dev.aspb.org/www.aspb.org/Application.cfm
1 ms 1 ms 1 C:/home/dev.aspb.org/www.aspb.org/includes/footer.cfm
0 ms 0 ms 1 C:/home/dev.aspb.org/www.aspb.org/includes/aspbtop2.cfm
5 ms  STARTUP, PARSING, COMPILING, LOADING, & SHUTDOWN
340 ms  TOTAL EXECUTION TIME
red = over 250 ms average execution time


SQL Queries

GetGlobalSettings (Datasource=ASPBAwards, Time=21ms, Records=1) in C:\home\dev.aspb.org\www.aspb.org\Application.cfm @ 11:44:26.026
	SELECT
       [MeetingLocation]
      ,[MeetingURL]
      ,[MeetingDates]
  FROM [dbo].[GlobalSettings]


Scope Variables

Application Variables:
applicationname=aspb_web
awardsadminemail=slee@aspb.org
awardsadminfax=
awardsadminname=Sylvia Lee
awardsadminphone=301-251-0560 x114
awardsadmintitle=Executive and Governance Affairs Administrator
awardsappyear=2016
awardsdeadline=02/15/2016
awardsenddate=Monday, February 15, 2016 (11:59 p.m. ET)
awardsnextyear=2017
awardsnotifydate=March 21, 2016
awardsstartdate=Monday, January 04, 2016
awardstitle=Call for 2016 Nominations for ASPB Awards
awardsyear=2016
bloomeadminemail=katie@aspb.org
bloomeadminfax=301-251-0560
bloomeadminname=Katie Engen
bloomeadminphone=301-251-0560
bloomeadmintitle=ASPB Education Coordinator
bloomedeadline=04/15/2015
bloomeenddate=Wednesday, April 15, 2015 (11:59 p.m. ET)
bloomenextyear=
bloomenotifydate=_ 
bloomestartdate=Tuesday, February 03, 2015
bloometitle=Plant BLOOME 2015
bloomeyear=2015
excomadminemail=slee@aspb.org
excomadminfax=301-251-0560
excomadminname=Sylvia Lee
excomadminphone=301-251-0560 x114
excomadmintitle=Executive and Governance Affairs Administrator
excomballotdeadline=05/29/2015
excomballotenddate=Friday, May 29, 2015 (11:59 p.m. ET)
excomballotnotifydate=06/10/2015
excomballotstartdate=Thursday, April 23, 2015
excomballottitle=ASPB Official 2015 Election Ballot
excomlastyear=2014
excommode=Nominate
excomnextyear=2016
excomnominatedeadline=02/16/2015
excomnominateenddate=Monday, February 16, 2015 (11:59 p.m. ET)
excomnominatenotifydate=mid-March, 2015
excomnominatestartdate=Friday, December 12, 2014
excomnominatetitle=ASPB Call for Executive Committee Nominations 2015
excomyear=2015
highwireadminemail=lpalmer@aspb.org
highwireadminname=Linda Palmer
hosthead=dev.aspb.org
journalaccessadminemail=katie@aspb.org
journalaccessadminfax=301-296-0902
journalaccessadminname=Katie Engen
journalaccessadminphone=301-296-0902
journalaccessadmintitle=ASPB Education Coordinator
journalaccessdeadline=02/13/2013
journalaccessenddate=Tuesday, February 12, 2013 (11:59 p.m. ET)
journalaccessnextyear=2014
journalaccessnotifydate=late-April, 2013
journalaccessstartdate=Thursday, September 27, 2012
journalaccesstitle=ASPB Journals - Online Access Nomination Form
journalaccessyear=2014
meetingdates=July 9-13, 2016
meetinglocation=Austin, Texas
meetingurl=http://my.aspb.org/?page=ME_Index
mepadminemail=katie@aspb.org
mepadminfax=301-296-0902
mepadminname=Katie Engen
mepadminphone=301-296-0903
mepadmintitle=ASPB Education Coordinator
mepdeadline=10/31/2014
mependdate=Friday, October 31, 2014 (11:59 p.m. ET)
mepnextyear=2015
mepnotifydate=November 21, 2014
mepstartdate=Monday, August 18, 2014
meptitle=ASPB Master Educator Program (MEP)
mepyear=2014
newshead=newsletter.aspb.org
pgcb=
physloc=c:\home\dev.aspb.org\wwwroot
rtaadminemail=slee@aspb.org
rtaadminfax=301-279-2996
rtaadminname=Sylvia Lee
rtaadminphone=301-251-0560 x114
rtaadmintitle=Executive and Governance Affairs Administrator
rtadeadline=03/04/2016
rtaenddate=Friday, March 04, 2016 (11:59 p.m. ET)
rtanextyear=
rtanotifydate=mid-April, 2016
rtastartdate=Monday, October 26, 2015
rtatitle=ASPB Minority Affairs Committee 2015 Recognition Travel Award Applications
rtayear=2016
showrightrail=true
surfadminemail=katie@aspb.org
surfadminfax=301-279-2996
surfadminname=Katie Engen
surfadminphone=301-251-0560 x114
surfadmintitle=ASPB Education Coordinator
surfdeadline=02/11/2015
surfenddate=Wednesday, February 11, 2015 (11:59 p.m. ET)
surfnextyear=2016
surfnotifydate=mid-April, 2015
surfstartdate=Tuesday, December 01, 2015
surftitle=2015 Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Awards
surfyear=2015
travelgrantsabstractdate=February 16, 2015
travelgrantsabstractfee=$25
travelgrantsadminemail=slee@aspb.org
travelgrantsadminname=Sylvia Lee
travelgrantsadminphone=301-251-0560 x114
travelgrantsadmintitle=Executive and Governance Affairs Administrator
travelgrantsdeadline=01/12/2015
travelgrantsenddate=Monday, January 12, 2015 (11:59 p.m. EDT)
travelgrantsfeewaived=$200
travelgrantsgrantamount=$575
travelgrantsgranttotal=
travelgrantsnextyear=2016
travelgrantsnotifydate=Tuesday, February 10, 2015
travelgrantsstartdate=Monday, November 03, 2014
travelgrantstitle=ASPB 2015 Travel Grants Award Application
travelgrantstotalamount=$46,000
travelgrantswaived=
travelgrantsyear=2015
wyitaabstractfee=$50
wyitaadminemail=slee@aspb.org
wyitaadminname=Sylvia Lee
wyitaadminphone=301-251-0560 x114
wyitaadmintitle=Executive and Governance Affairs Administrator
wyitaappyear=2015
wyitadeadline=01/13/2015
wyitaenddate=Tuesday, January 13, 2015 (11:59 p.m. ET)
wyitafeewaived=$165
wyitagrantamount=$1000
wyitagranttotal=$7000
wyitanextyear=2016
wyitanotifydate=February 10, 2015
wyitastartdate=Monday, November 03, 2014
wyitatitle=ASPB 2015 Women's Young Investigator Travel Award Applications
wyitawaived=
wyitayear=2015
ymhosthead=my.aspb.org
CGI Variables:
AUTH_PASSWORD=
AUTH_TYPE=
AUTH_USER=
CERT_COOKIE=
CERT_FLAGS=
CERT_ISSUER=
CERT_KEYSIZE=
CERT_SECRETKEYSIZE=
CERT_SERIALNUMBER=
CERT_SERVER_ISSUER=
CERT_SERVER_SUBJECT=
CERT_SUBJECT=
CF_TEMPLATE_PATH=C:\home\dev.aspb.org\www.aspb.org\publications\biotext\sumrys\ch21.cfm
CONTENT_LENGTH=
CONTENT_TYPE=
CONTEXT_PATH=
GATEWAY_INTERFACE=CGI/1.1
HTTPS=off
HTTPS_KEYSIZE=
HTTPS_SECRETKEYSIZE=
HTTPS_SERVER_ISSUER=
HTTPS_SERVER_SUBJECT=
HTTP_ACCEPT=text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING=x-gzip, gzip, deflate
HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE=en-us,en-gb,en;q=0.7,*;q=0.3
HTTP_CONNECTION=
HTTP_COOKIE=
HTTP_HOST=www.aspb.org
HTTP_REFERER=
HTTP_USER_AGENT=CCBot/2.0 (http://commoncrawl.org/faq/)
PATH_INFO=/publications/biotext/sumrys/ch21.cfm
PATH_TRANSLATED=C:\home\dev.aspb.org\www.aspb.org\publications\biotext\sumrys\ch21.cfm
QUERY_STRING=
REMOTE_ADDR=54.146.194.42
REMOTE_HOST=54.146.194.42
REMOTE_USER=
REQUEST_METHOD=GET
SCRIPT_NAME=/publications/biotext/sumrys/ch21.cfm
SERVER_NAME=www.aspb.org
SERVER_PORT=80
SERVER_PORT_SECURE=0
SERVER_PROTOCOL=HTTP/1.0
SERVER_SOFTWARE=Microsoft-IIS/7.5
WEB_SERVER_API=
Client Variables:
cfid=1867339
cftoken=f3100514a0c6af43-91A48929-FBD9-6AC8-8ADF83A486149C78
hitcount=1
lastvisit={ts '2016-02-08 11:44:26'}
timecreated={ts '2016-02-08 11:44:26'}
urltoken=CFID=1867339&CFTOKEN=f3100514a0c6af43-91A48929-FBD9-6AC8-8ADF83A486149C78
Cookie Variables:
CFID=1867339
CFTOKEN=f3100514a0c6af43-91A48929-FBD9-6AC8-8ADF83A486149C78
Server Variables:
coldfusion=Struct (8)
os=Struct (5)
Session Variables:
address1=
address2=
cfid=1867339
cftoken=f3100514a0c6af43-91A48929-FBD9-6AC8-8ADF83A486149C78
city=
constituentid=
cookie=
country=
email=
fax=
firstname=
gender=
id=
institution=
lastname=
memberemail=
memberid=
membername=
membership=
membertype=
middlename=
pgcb=ok
phone=
prefix=
sessionid=ASPB_WEB_1867339_f3100514a0c6af43-91A48929-FBD9-6AC8-8ADF83A486149C78
state=
suffix=
title=
urltoken=CFID=1867339&CFTOKEN=f3100514a0c6af43-91A48929-FBD9-6AC8-8ADF83A486149C78
websiteid=
ymsessionid=
zip=
URL Parameters:
COOKIE=
Debug Rendering Time: 54 ms