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Chapter 9

Protein Synthesis, Assembly,
and Degradation

 
Plants have three compartments in which proteins are synthesized. Protein synthesis mechanisms differ among these compartments, probably reflecting their distinct evolutionary origins. Protein synthesis is carefully regulated in response to the physiological needs of the plant. This regulation is particularly apparent in chloroplasts, where protein synthesis is coordinated with the photosynthetic activity of the organelle. After synthesis, proteins must be localized to the appropriate cellular location and may also be modified. Chaperones are required for the proper folding of proteins in cells. Protein folding and localization are coupled. Proteins are degraded to modulate the quantities of key metabolites present, to provide amino acids, and to remove improperly folded proteins.

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