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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants

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1. Membrane Structure and Membranous Organelles
A. Staehelin, Department of Molecular and Cell Development Biology, University of Colorado
E. Newcomb, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin

2. The Cell Wall
Sugars: building blocks of the cell wall • Macromolecules of the cell wall • Cell wall architecture • Cell wall biosynthesis and assembly • Growth and cell walls • Cell differentiation • Cell walls as food, feed, and fibers

N. Carpita, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University
M. McCann, Department of Cell Biology, John Innes Centre

3. Membrane Transport
Overview of membrane transport • Organization of transport at plant membranes • Pumps • Carriers • General properties of ion channels • Ion channels in action • Water transport through aquaporins

D. Sanders, Department of Biology, University of York
P. Bethke, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California at Berkeley

4. Protein Sorting and Vesicle Traffic
The machinery of protein sorting • Targeting proteins to the plastids • Transport into mitochondria and peroxisomes • Transport in and out of the nucleus • The role of ER in protein sorting and assembly • Vacuolar targeting and secretion • Protein modification in the Golgi • Endocytosis

N. Raikhel, MSU–DOE Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University
M. Chrispeels, Department of Biology, University of California San Diego

5. The Cytoskeleton
Introduction to the cytoskeleton • Intermediate filaments • Actin and tubulin gene families • Polymerization of actin and tubulin • Characteristics of actin and tubulin • Cytoskeletal accessory proteins • Role of actin filaments in directed intracellular movement • Cortical microtubules and cell expansion • Observing cytoskeletal dynamics • The cytoskeleton and signal transduction • The cytoskeleton and mitosis • The cytoskeleton and cytokinesis

T. Baskin, Department of Biological Science, University of Missouri

6. Nucleic Acids
Composition of nucleic acids and synthesis of nucleotides • Replication of nuclear DNA • DNA repair • DNA recombination • Organellar DNA • DNA transcription • Characteristics and functions of RNA • RNA processing

M. Sugiura, Center for Gene Research, Nagoya University
Y. Takeda, Bioscience Center, Nagoya University

7. Genome Organization and Expression
Genes and chromosomes • Nuclear genome organization • Transposable elements • Gene expression • Role of chromatin in chromosome organization and gene expression • Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation

R. Ferl, Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Florida
A.-L. Paul, Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Florida

8. Amino Acids
Amino acid biosynthesis in plants: research and prospects • Assimilation of inorganic nitrogen into N-transport amino acids • Aromatic amino acid synthesis • Aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis • Branched-chain amino acids • Proline metabolism: a target for metabolic engineering of stress tolerance

G. Corruzi, Department of Biology, New York University
R. Last, Cereon Genomics LLC

9. Protein Synthesis, Assembly, and Degradation
From RNA to protein • Regulation of cytosolic protein biosynthesis in eukaryotes • Protein synthesis in chloroplasts • Post-translational modification of proteins • Protein degradation

L. Spremulli, Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina

10. Lipids
Structure and function of lipids • Fatty acid biosynthesis • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase • Fatty acid synthase • Desaturation and elongation of C16 and C18 fatty acids • Synthesis of unusual fatty acids • Synthesis of membrane lipids • Function of membrane lipids • Synthesis and function of structural lipids • Synthesis and catabolism of storage lipids • Genetic engineering of lipids

C. Somerville, Plant Biology Department, Carnegie Institution of Washington
J. Browse, Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University J. Jaworski, Department of Chemistry, Miami University J. Ohlrogge, Department of Botany, Michigan State University

11. Cell Division Regulation
Animal and plant cells and their cell cycles • Historical perspective on cell cycle research • DNA replication • Mitosis • Mechanisms of cell cycle control • The logic of cell cycle control • Cell cycle control in multicellular organisms • Cell cycle regulation in plant growth and development

P. Doerner, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh

12. Photosynthesis
Overview of photosynthesis • Light absorption and energy conversion • The reaction center complex • The photosystem • Organization of the thylakoid membrane • Electron transport pathways in chloroplast membranes • ATP synthesis in chloroplasts • Carbon reactions in C3 plants • Variations in mechanisms of CO2 fixation

R. Malkin, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California at Berkeley
K. Niyogi, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California at Berkeley

13. Carbohydrate Metabolism
The hexose phosphate pool • Biosynthetic pathways that consume hexose phosphates: synthesis of sucrose and starch • Catabolic pathways that generate hexose phosphates: sucrose and starch degradation • The triose phosphate/pentose phosphate metabolite pool • Interactions between the hexose phosphate and pentose phosphate/triose phosphate pools • Starch used as an overflow when the synthesis of sucrose exceeds the capacity of the leaves to export it: an example of the integrated control of metabolism in two cell compartments • Modulation of gene expression by carbohydrates • Energy-conserving reactions of glycolysis • Supply of energy and reducing power for biosynthetic reactions

D. Dennis, Performance Plants, Inc., Kingston, Ontario
S. Blakeley, Department of Biology, Queens University

14. Respiration and Photorespiration
Overview of respiration • Citric acid cycle • Plant mitochondrial electron transport • Plant mitochon-drial ATP synthesis • Regulation of mitochondrial respiration • Interactions between mitochondria and other cellular compartments • Biochemical basis of photorespiration • Photorespiratory pathway • Role of photorespiration in plants

J. Siedow, Department of Botany, Duke University
D. Day, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Australian National University

15. Long-Distance Transport
Overview of diffusive and convective transport in plants • Importance of channel dimensions in defining the transport properties of the apoplast and symplasm • Comparison of xylem and phloem transport • Transpirational water movement in the xylem • Symplasmic transport via plasmodesmata • Phloem transport • Intercellular transport of endogenous macromolecules

D. Fisher, Department of Botany, Washington State University

16. Nitrogen and Sulfur
Overview of nitrogen in the biosphere and in plants • Overview of nitrogen fixation • Enzymology of nitrogen fixation • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation • Ammonia uptake and transport • Overview of nitrate uptake and reduction • Nitrate reduction • Nitrite reduction • Interaction between nitrate assimilation and carbon metabolism • Overview of sulfate assimilation • Sulfur chemistry and function • Sulfate uptake and transport • The reductive sulfate assimilation pathway • Synthesis and function of glutathione and its deriva-tives

N. Crawford, Department of Biology, University of California San Diego
M. Kahn, Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University
T. Leustek, Center for Agricultural Molecular Biology, Rutgers University
S. Long, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University

17. Biosynthesis of Hormones and Elicitor Molecules
Gibberellins • Abscisic acid • Cytokinins • Indole-3-acetic acid • Ethylene • Brassinosteroids • Polyamines • Jasmonic acid • Salicylic acid • Prospects

A. Crozier, Department of Botany, University of Glasgow
Y. Kamiya, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Japan
G. Bishop, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Wales
T. Yokota, Department of Biosciences, Teikyo University

18. Signal Perception and Transduction
Overview of signal transduction • Receptors • Specific examples of plant receptors • G-proteins and phospholipid signaling • Cyclic nucleotides • Calcium • Protein kinases: primary elements in signal transduction • Particular pathways of signal transduction associated with plant growth regulators • The future of plant cell signal transduction research

A. Trewavas, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh

19. Reproductive Development
Induction of flowering • Flower development • Genetic and molecular analysis of flower development • Formation of gametes • Mutations affecting gametophyte development • Germination of pollen • Self-incompatibility • Fertilization • Seed formation • Deposition of stored reserves during seed development • Embryo maturation and desiccation • Germination

J. Derek Bewley, Department of Botany, University of Guelph
F. Hempel, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California at Berkeley
S. McCormick, Sheila McCormick, U.S. Department of Agriculture/ Plant Gene Expression Center
P. Zambryski, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California at Berkeley

20. Senescence and Programmed Cell Death
Types of cell death observed in animals and plants • PCD in the life cycle of plants • Overview of senescence • Pigment metabolism during senescence • Protein metabolism in senescence • Impact of senes-cence on photosynthesis • Impact of senescence on oxidative metabolism • Degradation of nucleic acids during senescence • Regulation of metabolic activity in senescing cells • Endogenous plant growth regulators and senescence • Environmental influences on senescence • Examples of developmental PCD in plants • Examples of PCD as a plant response to stress • Further questions and future directions for PCD research

J. Dangl, Department of Biology, University of North Carolina
R. Dietrich, Novartis Crop Protection, Inc.
H. Thomas, Cell Biology Department, Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research

21. Responses to Plant Pathogens
Ways in which plant pathogens cause disease • Plant defense systems • Genetic basis of plant–pathogen interactions • R genes and R gene– mediated disease resistance • Biochemistry of plant defense reactions • Systemic plant defense responses • Control of plant pathogens by genetic engineering

K. Hammond-Kosack, Monsanto Company
J. Jones, The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre

22. Responses to Abiotic Stresses
Plant responses to abiotic stresses • Stresses involving water deficit • Osmotic adjustment and its role in tolerance to drought and salinity • Impact of water deficit and salinity on transport across plant mem-branes • Additional genes induced by water stress • Freezing stress • Flooding and oxygen deficit • Oxidative stress • Heat stress

E. Bray, Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California at Riverside
J. Bailey-Serres, Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California at Riverside
E. Weretilnyk, Department of Biology, McMaster University

23. Molecular Physiology of Mineral Nutrient Acquisition, Transport, and Utilization
Overview of essential mineral elements • Mechanisms and regulation of plant K+ transport • Phosphorus nutrition and transport • The molecular physiology of micronutrient acquisition • Plant responses to mineral toxicity

L. Kochian, U.S. Plant Soil and Nutrition Laboratory, Cornell University

24. Natural Products (Secondary Metabolites)
Terpenoids • Synthesis of IPP • Prenyltransferase and terpene synthase reactions • Modification of terpenoid skeletons • Toward transgenic terpenoid production • Alkaloids • Alkaloid biosynthesis • Biotechnologi-cal application of alkaloid biosynthesis research • Phenylpropanoid and phenylpropanoid-acetate pathway metabolites • Phenylpropanoid and phenylpropanoid-acetate biosynthesis • Biosynthesis of lignans, lignins, and suberization • Flavonoids • Coumarins, stilbenes, styrylpyrones, and arylpyrone • Metabolic engineering of phenylpropanoid production: a possible source of enhanced fibers, pigments, pharmaceuticals, and flavoring agents

R. Croteau, Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University
T. Kutchan, Leibniz Institut für Pflanzenbiochemie, Universität Halle
N. Lewis, Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University

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